A study to compare between DAX and CT scan to diagnose osteoporosis in elderly womenACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 2ABSTRACT.. 3LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 7CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.. 81.0 Overview.. 81.1 Statement of the Problem.. 91.2 Research Question. 91.3 Aims and Objectives. 101.4 Importance of this Review.. 101.5 Summary. 10CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 122.0 Overview.. 122.1 Ultrasonography: A Major Advance in Healthcare Practice. 122.2 The Prevalence of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 132.2.1 Signs and Symptoms of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 142.2.2 Factors Predisposing Sonographers to WRMSD.. 152.2.3 Preventing the Onset and Reducing the Severity of WRMSDs in Sonographers. Risk Assessments. Ultrasound Equipment Education. The Work Environment 192.3 Summary. 19CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY.. 203.0 Overview.. 203.1 Criteria for Formulating the Research Question. 203.2 Study Design. 223.3 The Search Strategy and Study Selection. 253.4 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria. 263.5 Final Study Selection. 273.6 Data Extraction. 273.7 Quality of the Chosen Studies. 283.8 Summary. 29CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS. 304.0 Overview.. 304.1 Study Selection. 304.2 Quality Assessment of the Chosen Studies. 334.3 Characteristics of the Selected Studies. 334.4 Prevalence and Development of WRMSDs in Sonographers. 374.4.1 Techniques and Protocols. 384.4.2 Sample Size and Correlations. 384.5 Factors Influencing WRMSDs in Sonographers. 404.6 Summary. 43CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION.. 445.0 Overview.. 445.1 Summary of the Evidence. 445.2 Limitations. 465.3 Findings within the Context of the Current Evidence. 475.4 Research Recommendations. 48CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION.. 50References. 51Appendices. 57List of Tables22 Defined Elements of the PIO Framework Used for this Research Study. 3.1
32 Examples of Reasons for Exclusion of Studies 4.1
35 Characteristics of the Selected Studies 4.2List of Figures31 The Study Selection Process using the PRISMA Statement. 4.1
40 Total Sample Size and Distribution Across and Within All Six Papers 4.2List of AppendicesCritical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).. 57muscle pain, which is an indicator of various diseases and disorders. The most common reasons for such pain are the overuse or over-stretching of a muscle or group of muscles, or arthralgia, which is a symptom of infection, injury and illnesses in particular, osteoarthritis; (Hackmon et al, 2006). As a result, this group of practitioners is often prone to developing one form of WRMSD or another. These are often referred to interchangeably as musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs), repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) and WRMSDs.
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